The only better option that comes to mind is forma, literally "shape", and I would probably use that to describe a beautiful human body. All you need to do is copy and paste the desired text. This rule applies to all kinds of sentences where the dependent verb is put in the subjunctive mood, for example indirect speech, indirect questions, indirect commands, purpose clauses, consecutive clauses, clauses after verbs of fearing, quīn clauses and others. The various tenses of the infinitive are as follows: The present passive and deponent infinitive usually ends in -rī (e.g. The 3rd person plural perfect indicative can also be shortened: dūxēre for dūxērunt 'they led'. The imperfect subjunctive can also be used in deliberative questions, that is to say, questions asking for advice, in a past time context: The imperfect subjunctive is very commonly found in past context dependent clauses, where it can represent the transformation of a present indicative or imperative. How does Linux retain control of the CPU on a single-core machine? I laught a lot with the Frankenstein's monster! Although the two series are similar in appearance, they are not parallel in meaning or function. A variation with teneō 'I hold or keep' is also sometimes found, but usually with emphasis on the idea of holding: A pluperfect can similarly be made using one of the past tenses of habeō:[110], Normally the perfect passive tenses are formed with sum, erō, and eram (e.g. This is known as virtual ōrātiō oblīqua:[443], Subordinate clauses generally change their tenses less than the main clauses in reported speech. The verb nōvī usually means 'I know' but sometimes it has a past meaning 'I became acquainted with': The perfect of cōnsuēscō, cōnsuēvī 'I have grown accustomed', is also often used with a present meaning:[102]. These are illustrated below using a 1st conjugation verb, amō 'I love', a 2nd conjugation verb moneō 'I advise', a 3rd conjugation verb, dūcō 'I lead', and a 4th conjugation verb, audiō 'I hear'. This kind of conditional sentence is known as 'ideal':[149], In early Latin, a present subjunctive can also be used to make an unreal conditional referring to the present:[152]. The Perfect Subjunctive The Perfect Subjunctive, active and passive, are used only in th e Primary Sequence of Tenses, and do not appear in Purpose or Result Clauses. Gildersleeve & Lodge, (1895), p. 387; Woodcock (1959), pp. This rule can be illustrated with the following table:[335]. The rule of tense is that the present infinitive is used for any action or situation which is contemporary with the main verb, the perfect for actions or situations anterior to the main verb, and the future infinitive for actions or situations later than the main verb. [390] An exception to this rule is the verb meminī 'I remember', which when used of personal reminiscence (e.g. The future tense can describe an event or a situation in the near or distant future: There is no distinction in the future between perfective and imperfective aspect. One common use is in conditional sentences, where the pluperfect subjunctive is used to express a hypothetical event in the past, which might have taken place, but did not. More than half the historic presents in Caesar are of this kind. What I could found was: perfectum corpus but I would like to know if corpus perfectum is also right, what do you say? The meanings of individual words come complete with examples of usage, transcription, and the possibility to hear pronunciation. [3] However, occasionally Latin makes a distinction which is not made in English: for example, fuī and eram both mean 'I was' in English, but they differ in Latin (the distinction is also found in Spanish and Portuguese). When the verb of telling or asking in the dominant clause is primary, the subjunctive verb in the dependent clause must also be primary; when the verb in the dominant clause is historic, the subjunctive verb in the dependent clause must also be in a historic tense. The pluperfect of ōdī, nōvī and meminī has the meaning of an imperfect: The subjunctive mood in Latin has four tenses, which are as shown below. The following example contains an indirect command reflecting an imperative in direct speech: Another very common use is the circumstantial cum-clause with the imperfect subjunctive. It can also be used performatively to describe an event which takes place at the moment of speaking: The present tense is often used in narrative in a historic sense, referring to a past event, especially when the writer is describing an exciting moment in the story. The imperfect tense can describe a situation that used to take place regularly or habitually: Similar to the above is the iterative or 'frequentative'[39] use of the imperfect, describing what something that kept on happening or which happened on an indefinite number of occasions: It can also describe a situation that existed at a particular moment: Often an expression such as tum 'then' or eō tempore 'at that time' is added: The use of the imperfect rather than the perfect can be used to make a scene more vivid, as with this sentence of Cicero's: The passage is commented on by Aulus Gellius. Is the word ноябрь or its forms ever abbreviated in Russian language? In such sentences English uses the present tense:[128][129]. If the introductory verb is passive, such as vidētur 'he seems', the participle is nominative: The same tense of the infinitive can also represent the transformation into indirect statement of an imperfect potential subjunctive, referring to a hypothetical present situation:[426]. Yandex.Translate is a mobile and web service that translates words, phrases, whole texts, and entire websites from Latin into English. The simple future, not the future perfect, is used if the time of the two verbs is simultaneous: The future can also be used for polite requests, as when Cicero sends greetings to his friend Atticus's wife and daughter: The imperfect indicative generally has an imperfective meaning and describes situations in the past. It is frequently used by Cicero as well as other writers:[32]. The participle changes according to gender and number: ducta est 'she was led', ductae sunt '(the women) were led' etc. This is used in wishes for the future:[176], In Plautus this subjunctive is also used in prohibitions, when it exists:[179]. Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 174; Woodcock (1959), pp. The present subjunctive is also used in a great variety of subordinate clauses set in present time, such as purpose clauses, indirect commands, consecutive clauses, clauses of fearing, indirect questions, and others. 165, 334. Ker (2007), p. 345. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. The gerundive infinitive in indirect speech indicates something which needs to be done at the time of the verb of speaking: The perfect gerundive infinitive indicates something that was necessary at a previous time: It can also refer to what ought to have been done at some time in the past:[436]. In this case there is not necessarily any idea of planning or intention, although there may be:[304], This tense can also be used in primary sequence reported speech, to represent the main clause in either an ideal conditional sentence or a simple future one (according to the grammars, the distinction between these two disappears in indirect speech):[307]. Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 315; Woodcock (1959), pp. Just as fore ut is used to make a future passive infinitive, so futūrum fuisse ut can be used to make a potential passive infinitive:[431], However this is very rare, and in fact only two instances have been noted (the other being Cicero Tusc. In some cases, when the main verb is 1st or 2nd person, the subordinate clause is not put in the subjunctive at all:[445]. Here the subjunctive has a jussive use, not potential: The perfect subjunctive is most commonly used in dependent clauses. It is used in indirect statements to describe something which it is going to be necessary to do: It can also describe what must necessarily happen at a future time: A characteristic of Roman historical writing is that long speeches are reported indirectly (ōrātiō oblīqua). PostgreSQL - CAST vs :: operator on LATERAL table function, I mistakenly revealed name of new company to HR of current company, Looking for a function that approximates a parabola, Expressive macro for tensors; raised and lowered indices. The shortened form of the perfect is common in poetry, but is also sometimes found in prose. captus sum 'I was captured', captus erō 'I will have been captured', captus eram 'I had been captured'). But Catullus (and apparently Cicero, judging from the rhythms of his clausulae) pronounced the future perfect with a long i (fēcerīmus). For geographical description, erat is used: There are also some types of sentences where either tense may be used indifferently, for example when describing someone's name or character: The equivalent of these two tenses, era and fui both meaning 'I was', still exist in Spanish and Portuguese today.