These species are not normally carried over from one planting season to the next. This publication is available from the NCCIA office in Raleigh. The elongation of the root and the coleoptile (penetrating organ) occurs almost simultaneously (Figures 5a and 5b). Field emergence pattern of soybean seedlings. In North Carolina, however, if you advertise seed for sale, you become a retail seed dealer and must purchase a seed license. Inert Matter: This number indicates the percentage of extraneous material such as dirt, stems, leaves, and seed parts in the seed lot. Some seed producers use tetrazolium, cold test, growth rate, or some other testing technique to estimate seed vigor. A common effort by the dealer and the inspector will provide the best seed. Foil W. McLaughlin, Director of the North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, passed away on August 7, 1991. The PLS rating is calculated by multiplying the purity percentage by the germination percentage, where both values are expressed as decimals. It may contain both the pistil (female) and stamen (male). The pollen tube grows down the style and into the ovary, where it comes into contact with the ovule. Normal seedlings are those that produce a vigorous set of primary and secondary roots; have a healthy hypocotyl, epicotyl, and cotyledon; and produce a healthy shoot meristem. So far, more than 3,000 varieties have been notified under the Seeds Act, 1966 in different crops at National level. In broad sense, seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose. It is good for all parties involved to determine the true cause of the crop stand problem. Such failures are characterized by areas of excellent stands and areas of poor stands. It’s a scale that we can’t conceive. High planter-plate speeds, however, can cause considerable damage to the seed. Seed moisture is the most important factor affecting seed longevity. If the variety is not given, the seed tag normally has the statement, “Variety not stated.” When two or more components are named, the word “mixture” or “mixed” must appear on the label. The owner of a protected variety may choose additional protection through the certification option of the PVPA. In many crops, the registered seed producer must own certain conditioning equipment. the name and address of the individual or company labeling the seed (the vendor). Like all living organisms, seeds are composed of many different types of chemicals, but seeds are unique in that they are a storehouse of chemicals that are used as food reserves for the next generation plant. For example, the cold test for corn, the cool test for cotton, and the accelerated aging test for soybeans have proven to be reliable vigor tests that correlate very well with storage life and field emergence. Seed usually represents a relatively small part of the monetary cost of producing a crop. Most crops are planted to achieve a given population of healthy plants per unit of ground area. Knowledge of seed structure can help in understanding how seeds respond during harvesting, conditioning, germination, and seedling emergence. If more than one kind or variety is named, the pure seed percentage of each component must be given. Let us examine each statement and see how it can help in buying seed. Certification offers a program of planned production, whereby desirable varietal and seed purity is maintained for a rapidly changing list of superior varieties. If more than one kind and variety is named, the germination percentage must be shown for each kind and variety. Each quality characteristic is important. Seed may be defined as “Structurally a true seed is a fertilized matured ovule… The chemicals used should be harmless to seed, stable for long periods of time, easy to use, and low in toxicity to people and animals. Other Crop Seed: This number indicates the percentage of the total weight made up of seed from a crop other than the kind and variety listed. In the case of proteins, seeds may not have the ideal composition in terms of human nutritional needs. A normal seedling is one that has the essential seed structures necessary for plant survival. Weed Seed: The presence of weed seed is expressed as a percentage of total weight. High-quality seed should contain only a very low percentage or no weed seed. Globally over the last 80 years we’ve lost 98% of vegetable variety, which is insane. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Change ), QUALITY SEED AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN AGRICULTURE | agbonlahorehizogie, IYA, SLU explore possible collaboration (#IYA_SLU), Young people vouch for agriculture to fight joblessness, SLU students visit IITA Youth Agripreneurs (#IYA_SLU). Figure 5. Certified seed is produced under strict varietal purity standards and identified with a blue seed label (Figure 10c). Other seeds have extremely hard coverings that protect the seed from almost everything. may contain a billion times more food. Many factors, such as maturity level at harvest, age of the seed, mechanical injuries, disease infection, and storage environment, can influence seed vigor. As growth continues, the hypocotyl elongates by cell enlargement, and the midsection emerges from the soil (Figure 3b). Pure Seed: This number tells what percentage of the total weight consists of seed of the kind and variety stated. The reputation of a seed wholesaler or local producer is rated in relation to the quality of seed sold. For example, methyl bromide is frequently used to fumigate warehouses and bins. If the seed is not brought up to standard, it is ordered removed from sale. Seeds are composed of three basic structures: (1) the seed covering (seed coat or testa); (2) the embryonic axis (embryonic root or radicle and shoot or plumule); and (3) supporting tissues (the cotyledons and endosperm). If treated seeds are not planted, they should be disposed of as hazardous waste. Figure 14: Relationship between seed germination and seed vigor during storage. Under these conditions stand failures may be variable across a field, particularly if the field contains several soil types. Indeed his input and sound advice have been beneficial in many areas of the Seed Extension Program. The general pattern of seed deterioration is illustrated in Figure 13. Weather patterns sometimes make early spring or late fall planting extremely risky. Copies are available from county Extension Service offices. Figure 8. The NCCIA, founded in 1929, establishes and administers the standards for certification. A seed conditioner can clean seed of a protected variety for a farmer, but it is a violation for the conditioner to seek out potential buyers or sellers of this seed or even to make it known that they hold any such seed for purchase. The standard germination test measures the number of normal seedlings produced by a sample of seed under optimal conditions. For most crop seed, the law requires that the analysis label contain the following information: Such information should be based on the germination and purity analysis testing of a representative sample taken from the seed lot. Underfavorable germination conditions, the two lots have only a small difference in speed of germination (Figure 7). An example of an acceptable label format is shown in Figure 11. Pathogens (organisms that cause disease) are often present on or in the seed or in the soil. The role of seed as an agricultural input technology cannot be underestimated, as it is an indispensable input in any agricultural production system (Almekinders & Louwaars, 2008). Soybean (high in protein and relatively high in lipids) is the exception rather than the rule. They are responsible for the accuracy of the label’s information. 9th April. With modern equipment, the speed at which planting can be done is considered a measure of efficiency. Seed quality, on the other hand, is largely dependent upon environmental conditions and the promptness with which the seed is harvested after it matures. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Copies can be obtained from the Seed Section, Plant Industry Division, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, PO Box 27647, Raleigh, NC 27611-7647. A useful guide for farmers and retail seed dealers for determining the best seed to buy is the “pure live seed” rating. As the bent hypocotyl elongates, it gradually pulls the cotyledons above ground (Figure 3c). The major botanical structures of monocotyledonous (for example, corn) and dicotyledonous (for example, soybeans) types of seed.